Category Management is a distributor/supplier process of managing food and beverage categories as strategic business units, producing enhanced business results by focusing on delivering consumer value.
Convenience Stores usually sell a wide range of goods with extended opening hours. Examples of this format include 7-Eleven and QuikTrip (see Excel table).
Discounters are comprised of hard discounters and soft discounters. Hard discounters are typically 300-900 square meters (3,229-9,688 square feet) stocking fewer than 1,000 product lines, primarily in packaged groceries from private-label or budget brands. Soft discounters are slightly larger than hard discounters, stocking 1,000 to 4,000 product lines, commonly carrying leading brands at discounted prices. Discounters exclude mass merchandisers and warehouse clubs. Example brands include Aldi, Lidl, Pls, Penny, and Netto.
Elasticity indicates how one variable responds to a change in another variable. For example, income elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of the quantity of a particular product demanded as a result of a percentage change in income, while price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of the quantity demanded as a result of a percentage change in price.
Food Manufacturers convert bulky, perishable animal and crop material into shelf-stable, palatable foods or potable beverages. Increasing palatability, storability, and convenience are all aspects of "adding value."
Food Retailers provide a market outlet where consumers can purchase food products. Based on the nature of products sold and the size of operation, food retail outlets range from convenience stores to warehouse-style discount outlets.
Foodservice Outlets dispense prepared meals and snacks intended for on-premise or immediate consumption.
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is the movement of capital across national frontiers in a manner that grants the investor control over the acquired asset. Firms that use FDI are known as multinational enterprises. Production in the foreign country is largely financed by the multinational. Profits accrue to the multinational through sales made by the foreign affiliate.
High-Value Food Products are processed food products and perishable foods such as meats and fresh fruits and vegetables.
High-Income Countries are countries in which the per capita gross national income in 2005 was $10,726 or more, according to World Development Indicators 2007.
Independent (nonchain) Food Stores have selling space of less than 400 square meters (4,306 square feet) and usually specialize in packaged groceries, where food accounts for at least 50 percent of total retail sales, according to Euromonitor International.
Low-Income Countries are countries in which the per capita gross national income per capita in 2005 was $875 or less, according to World Development Indicators 2007.
Lower Middle-Income Countries are countries in which the per capita gross national income per capita in 2005 was between $876 and $3,465, according to World Development Indicators 2007.
Multinational retail chain refers to a retailer who operates in more than one foreign country simultaneously.
Packaged Food Products are sold through retail establishments primarily in the form of prepared foods for home preparations or direct consumption such as baked, canned, frozen, or dried food products. Fresh products such as fruit, vegetables, and meat, or basic ingredients such as sugar, flour, and salt are not included.
Petrol/Gas/Service Outlets are roadside establishments selling fuel and other products to motorists via a convenience store attached to the fueling station.
Processed Food Products have undergone a transformation from their raw forms either to extend shelf-life—such as the freezing or dehydration of fruits and vegetables—or to improve consumer palatability of raw commodities—such as transforming grain and animal products into bakery and meat products. See Excel file for more examples.
Staple Food Products are commodities, like rice and wheat, that have a long history of production and consumption in a particular region. These commodities may account for a large share of the diet of local low-income households.
Supermarkets are defined as stores with a selling area of between 400 square meters (4,306 square feet) and 2,500 square meters (26,910 square feet), selling at least 70 percent food and everyday commodities, according to Euromonitor International. Outlets below 400 square meters may also be included in certain countries, on the basis of format, product mix, and opening hours.
Upper Middle-Income Countries are countries in which the per capita gross national income in 2005 was between $3,466 and $10,725, according to World Development Indicators 2007.
Value-Added Food Products are foods that have increased in value (price) from the post-harvest stage of production due to alterations in size, shape, appearance, location, or convenience.
Wholesalers buy and resell food (from a variety of producers and manufacturers), assemble it for distribution, load it onto trucks, and deliver it to retailers, foodservice establishments, institutional buyers, or the export market, making profits on the services they provide.