Last updated: Monday, September 18, 2017

For more information contact: Alana Rhone and Michele Ver Ploeg

Definitions and Data Sources

This page provides definitions and data sources for the Food Environment Atlas indicators, grouped under the following categories:

Indicators are county-level measures unless otherwise noted as follows:

*State-level indicator

**Regional-level indicator

Category: Access and Proximity to Grocery Store

Data are from the reports:

Indicator: Population, low access to store

Geographic level: County

Definition: Number of people in a county living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition.

Available years: 2010 and 2015

Indicator: Population, low access to store (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of people in a county living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area. Percent change indicators are calculated as: [((Year 2 - Year 1) / Year 1) x 100].

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition.

Available years: 2010/2015

Indicator: Population, low access to store (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percentage of people in a county living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Once distance to the nearest supermarket or large grocery store was calculated for each grid cell, the number of individuals living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store in urban areas and more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store in rural areas was aggregated to the county level and divided by the total number of individuals in the county to obtain the percentage of total population in the county that resided more than 1 or 10 miles from a supermarket.

Available years: 2010 and 2015

Indicator: Low income and low access to store

Geographic level: County

Definition: Number of people in a county with low income and living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, while data on income in 2010 are drawn at the block group-level from the 2006-10 American Community Survey, and data on income in 2015 are drawn from the 2010-14 American Community Survey. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Low-income is defined as annual family income of less than or equal to 200 percent of the Federal poverty threshold based on family size.

Available years: 2010 and 2015

Indicator: Low income and low access to store (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of people in a county with low income and living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area. Percent change indicators are calculated as: [((Year 2 - Year 1) / Year 1) x 100].

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, while data on income in 2010 are drawn at the block group-level from the 2006-10 American Community Survey, and data on income in 2015 are drawn from the 2010-14 American Community Survey. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Low-income is defined as annual family income of less than or equal to 200 percent of the Federal poverty threshold based on family size.

Available years: 2010/2015

Indicator: Low income and low access to store (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percentage of people in a county with low income and living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, while data on income in 2010 are drawn at the block group-level from the 2006-10 American Community Survey, and data on income in 2015 are drawn from the 2010-14 American Community Survey.These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Low-income is defined as annual family income of less than or equal to 200 percent of the Federal poverty threshold based on family size. Once distance to the nearest supermarket or large grocery store was calculated for each grid cell, the number of low-income individuals living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store in urban areas and more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store in rural areas was aggregated to the county level and divided by the total number of individuals in the county to obtain the percentage of total population in the county that resided more than 1 or 10 miles from a supermarket.

Available years: 2010 and 2015

Indicator: Children, low access to store

Geographic level: County

Definition: Number of children (age < 18) in a county living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data, including age, are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Children are counted as individuals age 17 and younger.

Available years: 2010 and 2015

Indicator: Children, low access to store (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of children (age <18) in a county living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area. Percent change indicators are calculated as: [((Year 2 - Year 1) / Year 1) x 100].

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data, including age, are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Children are counted as individuals age 17 or younger.

Available years: 2010/2015

Indicator: Children, low access to store (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percentage of children (age < 18) in a county living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data, including age, are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Children are counted as individuals age 17 or younger. Once distance to the nearest supermarket or large grocery store was calculated for each grid cell, the number of children in housing units more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store in urban areas and more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store in rural areas was aggregated to the county level and divided by the total number of children in the county to obtain the percentage of total children in the county that were in households more than 1 or 10 miles from a supermarket.

Available years: 2010 and 2015

Indicator: Seniors, low access to store

Geographic level: County

Definition: Number of seniors (age > 64) in a county living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data, including age, are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Seniors are counted as individuals age 65 or older.

Available years: 2010 and 2015

Indicator: Seniors, low access to store (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of seniors (age > 64) in a county living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area. Percent change indicators are calculated as: [((Year 2 - Year 1) / Year 1) x 100].

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data, including age, are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Seniors are counted as individuals age 65 or older.

Available years: 2010/2015

Indicator: Seniors, low access to store (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percentage of seniors (age > 64) in a county living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data, including age, are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Seniors are counted as individuals age 65 or older. Once distance to the nearest supermarket or large grocery store was calculated for each grid cell, the number of seniors in housing units more than 1 mile from the nearest supermarket or large grocery store in urban areas and more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store in rural areas was aggregated to the county level and divided by the total number of seniors in the county to obtain the percentage of seniors in the county that were in households more than 1 or 10 miles from a supermarket.

Available years: 2010 and 2015

Indicator: Households, no car and low access to store

Geographic level: County

Definition: Number of housing units in a county without a car and more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Data on 2010 households are drawn at the block group-level from the 2006-10 American Community Survey, and data on 2015 households are drawn at the block group-level from the 2010-14 American Community Survey. These data were first allocated to blocks and then aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Vehicle access was measured based on an American Community Survey question that asks respondents whether the household has access to a car, truck or van, of 1-ton capacity or less.

Available years: 2010 and 2015

Indicator: Households, no car and low access to store (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of housing units in a county without a car and more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store. Percent change indicators are calculated as: [((Year 2 - Year 1) / Year 1) x 100].

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Data on 2010 households are drawn at the block group-level from the 2006-10 American Community Survey, and data on 2015 households are drawn at the block group-level from the 2010-14 American Community Survey. These data were first allocated to blocks and then aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Vehicle access was measured based on an American Community Survey question that asks respondents whether the household has access to a car, truck or van, of 1-ton capacity or less.

Available years: 2010/2015

Indicator: Households, no car and low access to store (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percentage of housing units in a county without a car and more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Data on 2010 households are drawn at the block group-level from the 2006-10 American Community Survey, and data on 2015 households are drawn at the block group-level from the 2010-14 American Community Survey. These data were first allocated to blocks and then aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Vehicle access was measured based on an American Community Survey question that asks respondents whether the household has access to a car, truck or van, of 1-ton capacity or less. Once distance to the nearest supermarket or large grocery store was calculated for each grid cell, the number of housing units more than 1 mile from the nearest supermarket or large grocery store in urban areas and more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store in rural areas was aggregated to the county level and divided by the total number of housing units in the county to obtain the percentage of housing units in the county that were more than 1 or 10 miles from a supermarket and without a vehicle.

Available years: 2010 and 2015

Indicator: SNAP households, low access to store

Geographic level: County

Definition: Number of housing units in a county receiving SNAP benefits and more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Data on 2010 households receiving SNAP benefits are drawn at the block group-level from the 2006-10 American Community Survey, and data on 2015 households receiving SNAP benefits are drawn at the block group-level from the 2010-14 American Community Survey. These data were first allocated to blocks and then aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Vehicle access was measured based on an American Community Survey question that asks respondents whether the household has access to a car, truck or van, of 1-ton capacity or less.

Available year: 2015

Indicator: SNAP households, low access to store (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percentage of housing units in a county receiving SNAP benefits and more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Data on 2010 households are drawn at the block group-level from the 2006-10 American Community Survey, and data on 2015 households are drawn at the block group-level from the 2010-14 American Community Survey. These population data were first allocated to blocks and then aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Vehicle access was measured based on an American Community Survey question that asks respondents whether the household has access to a car, truck or van, of 1-ton capacity or less. Once distance to the nearest supermarket or large grocery store was calculated for each grid cell, the number of housing units receiving SNAP benefits more than 1 mile from the nearest supermarket or large grocery store in urban areas and more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store in rural areas was aggregated to the county level and divided by the total number of housing units in the county to obtain the percent of housing units receiving SNAP benefits in the county that were more than 1 or 10 miles from a supermarket and without a vehicle.

Available year: 2015

Indicator: White, low access to store

Geographic level: County

Definition: Number of individuals in a county who are White living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition.

Available year: 2015

Indicator: White, low access to store (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percentage of people in a county who are White living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Once distance to the nearest supermarket or large grocery store was calculated for each grid cell, the number of White individuals living more than 1 mile from the nearest supermarket or large grocery store in urban areas and more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store in rural areas was aggregated to the county level and divided by the total number of White individuals in the county to obtain the percentage of White individuals in the county that resided more than 1 or 10 miles from a supermarket.

Available year: 2015

Indicator: Black, low access to store

Geographic level: County

Definition: Number of individuals in a county who are Black living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition.

Available year: 2015

Indicator: Black, low access to store (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percentage of people in a county who are Black living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Once distance to the nearest supermarket or large grocery store was calculated for each grid cell, the number of Black individuals living more than 1 mile from the nearest supermarket or large grocery store in urban areas and more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store in rural areas was aggregated to the county level and divided by the total number of Black individuals in the county to obtain the percentage of Black individuals in the county that resided more than 1 or 10 miles from a supermarket.

Available year: 2015

Indicator: Asian, low access to store

Geographic level: County

Definition: Number of individuals in a county who are Asian living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition.

Available year: 2015

Indicator: Asian, low access to store (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percentage of people in a county who are Asian living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Once distance to the nearest supermarket or large grocery store was calculated for each grid cell, the number of Asian individuals living more than 1 mile from the nearest supermarket or large grocery store in urban areas and more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store in rural areas was aggregated to the county level and divided by the total number of Asian individuals in the county to obtain the percentage of Asian individuals in the county that resided more than 1 or 10 miles from a supermarket.

Available year: 2015

Indicator: American Indian or Alaska Native, low access to store

Geographic level: County

Definition: Number of individuals in a county who are American Indian or Alaska Native living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition.

Available year: 2015

Indicator: American Indian or Alaska Native, low access to store (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percentage of people in a county who are American Indian or Alaska Native living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Once distance to the nearest supermarket or large grocery store was calculated for each grid cell, the number of American Indian or Alaska Native individuals living more than 1 mile from the nearest supermarket or large grocery store in urban areas and more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store in rural areas was aggregated to the county level and divided by the total number of American Indian or Alaska Native individuals in the county to obtain the percentage of American Indian or Alaska Native individuals in the county that resided more than 1 or 10 miles from a supermarket.

Available year: 2015

Indicator: Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, low access to store

Geographic level: County

Definition: Number of individuals in a county who are Hawaiian or Pacific Islander living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition.

Available year: 2015

Indicator: Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, low access to store (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percentage of people in a county who are Hawaiian or Pacific Islander living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Once distance to the nearest supermarket or large grocery store was calculated for each grid cell, the number of Hawaiian or Pacific Islander individuals living more than 1 mile from the nearest supermarket or large grocery store in urban areas and more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store in rural areas was aggregated to the county level and divided by the total number of Hawaiian or Pacific Islander individuals in the county to obtain the percentage of Hawaiian or Pacific Islander individuals in the county that resided more than 1 or 10 miles from a supermarket.

Available year: 2015

Indicator: Multiracial, low access to store

Geographic level: County

Definition: Number of individuals in a county who are Multiracial living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition.

Available year: 2015

Indicator: Multiracial, low access to store (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percentage of people in a county who are Multiracial living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Once distance to the nearest supermarket or large grocery store was calculated for each grid cell, the number of Multiracial individuals living more than 1 mile from the nearest supermarket or large grocery store in urban areas and more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store in rural areas was aggregated to the county level and divided by the total number of Multiracial individuals in the county to obtain the percentage of Multiracial individuals in the county that resided more than 1 or 10 miles from a supermarket.

Available year: 2015

Indicator: Hispanic ethnicity, low access to store

Geographic level: County

Definition: Number of individuals in a county who are of Hispanic ethnicity living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition.

Available year: 2015

Indicator: Hispanic ethnicity, low access to store (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percentage of people in a county who are of Hispanic ethnicity living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store if in a rural area.

Data sources: In each of the referenced reports, a directory of supermarkets and large grocery stores authorized to accept SNAP benefits was merged with Trade Dimensions' TDLinx directory of stores within the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, for the years 2010 and 2015. Stores met the definition of a supermarket or large grocery store if they reported at least $2 million in annual sales and contained all the major food departments found in a traditional supermarket, including fresh meat and poultry, dairy, dry and packaged foods, and frozen foods. The combined list of supermarkets and large grocery stores was converted into a GIS-usable format by geocoding the street address into store-point locations. Population data are reported at the block level from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing. These population data were aerially allocated down to ½-kilometer-square grids across the United States. For each ½-kilometer-square grid cell, the distance was calculated from its geographic center to the center of the grid cell with the nearest supermarket. Rural or urban status is designated by the Census Bureau’s Urban Area definition. Once distance to the nearest supermarket or large grocery store was calculated for each grid cell, the number of Hispanic individuals living more than 1 mile from the nearest supermarket or large grocery store in urban areas and more than 10 miles from a supermarket or large grocery store in rural areas was aggregated to the county level and divided by the total number of Hispanic individuals in the county to obtain the percentage of Hispanic individuals in the county that resided more than 1 or 10 miles from a supermarket.

Available year: 2015

Category: Store Availability

Indicator: Grocery stores

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of supermarkets and grocery stores in the county.

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Grocery stores (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 445110) include establishments generally known as supermarkets and smaller grocery stores primarily engaged in retailing a general line of food, such as canned and frozen foods; fresh fruits and vegetables; and fresh and prepared meats, fish, and poultry. Included in this industry are delicatessen-type establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of food. Convenience stores, with or without gasoline sales, are excluded. Large general merchandise stores that also retail food, such as supercenters and warehouse club stores, are excluded.

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: Grocery stores (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of supermarkets and grocery stores in the county. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Grocery stores (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 445110) include establishments generally known as supermarkets and smaller grocery stores primarily engaged in retailing a general line of food, such as canned and frozen foods; fresh fruits and vegetables; and fresh and prepared meats, fish, and poultry. Included in this industry are delicatessen-type establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of food. Convenience stores, with or without gasoline sales, are excluded. Large general merchandise stores that also retail food, such as supercenters and warehouse club stores, are excluded.

Available years: 2009/2014

Indicator: Grocery stores/1,000 pop

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of supermarkets and grocery stores in the county per 1,000 county residents.

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Grocery stores (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 445110) include establishments generally known as supermarkets and smaller grocery stores primarily engaged in retailing a general line of food, such as canned and frozen foods; fresh fruits and vegetables; and fresh and prepared meats, fish, and poultry. Included in this industry are delicatessen-type establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of food. Convenience stores, with or without gasoline sales, are excluded. Large general merchandise stores that also retail food, such as supercenters and warehouse club stores, are excluded.

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: Grocery stores/1,000 pop (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of supermarkets and grocery stores in the county per 1,000 county residents. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Grocery stores (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 445110) include establishments generally known as supermarkets and smaller grocery stores primarily engaged in retailing a general line of food, such as canned and frozen foods; fresh fruits and vegetables; and fresh and prepared meats, fish, and poultry. Included in this industry are delicatessen-type establishments primarily engaged in retailing a general line of food. Convenience stores, with or without gasoline sales, are excluded. Large general merchandise stores that also retail food, such as supercenters and warehouse club stores, are excluded.

Available years: 2009/2014

Indicator: Supercenters and club stores

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of supercenters and warehouse club stores in the county.

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Warehouse clubs and supercenters (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 452910) are primarily engaged in retailing a general line of groceries in combination with general lines of new merchandise, such as apparel, furniture, and appliances. They exclude grocery stores and supermarkets, which are listed separately.

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: Supercenters and club stores (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of supercenters and warehouse club stores in the county. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Warehouse clubs and supercenters (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 452910) are primarily engaged in retailing a general line of groceries in combination with general lines of new merchandise, such as apparel, furniture, and appliances. They exclude grocery stores and supermarkets, which are listed separately.

Available years: 2009/2014

Indicator: Supercenters and club stores/1,000 pop

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of supercenters and warehouse club stores in the county per 1,000 county residents.

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Warehouse clubs and supercenters (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 452910) are primarily engaged in retailing a general line of groceries in combination with general lines of new merchandise, such as apparel, furniture, and appliances. They exclude grocery stores and supermarkets, which are listed separately.

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: Supercenters and club stores/1,000 pop (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of supercenters and warehouse club stores in the county per 1,000 county residents. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Warehouse clubs and supercenters (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 452910) are primarily engaged in retailing a general line of groceries in combination with general lines of new merchandise, such as apparel, furniture, and appliances. They exclude grocery stores and supermarkets, which are listed separately.

Available years: 2009/2014

Indicator: Convenience stores

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of convenience stores in the county.

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Establishments known as convenience stores or food marts (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes 445120 and 447110) are primarily engaged in retailing a limited line of goods that generally includes milk, bread, soda, and snacks.

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: Convenience stores (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of convenience stores in the county. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Establishments known as convenience stores or food marts (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes 445120 and 447110) are primarily engaged in retailing a limited line of goods that generally includes milk, bread, soda, and snacks.

Available years: 2009/2014

Indicator: Convenience stores/1,000 pop

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of convenience stores in the county per 1,000 county residents.

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Establishments known as convenience stores or food marts (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes 445120 and 447110) are primarily engaged in retailing a limited line of goods that generally includes milk, bread, soda, and snacks.

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: Convenience stores/1,000 pop (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of convenience stores in the county per 1,000 county residents. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Establishments known as convenience stores or food marts (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes 445120 and 447110) are primarily engaged in retailing a limited line of goods that generally includes milk, bread, soda, and snacks.

Available years: 2009/2014

Indicator: Specialized food stores

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of specialized food stores in the county.

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Specialized food stores (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 445200) include establishments primarily engaged in retailing specialized lines of food, such as retail bakeries, meat and seafood markets, dairy stores, and produce markets.

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: Specialized food stores (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of specialized food stores in the county. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Specialized food stores (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 445200) include establishments primarily engaged in retailing specialized lines of food, such as retail bakeries, meat and seafood markets, dairy stores, and produce markets.

Available years: 2009/2014

Indicator: Specialized food stores/1,000 pop

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of convenience stores in the county per 1,000 county residents.

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Specialized food stores (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 445200) include establishments primarily engaged in retailing specialized lines of food, such as retail bakeries, meat and seafood markets, dairy stores, and produce markets.

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: Specialized food stores/1,000 pop (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of specialized food stores in the county per 1,000 county residents. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Specialized food stores (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 445200) include establishments primarily engaged in retailing specialized lines of food, such as retail bakeries, meat and seafood markets, dairy stores, and produce markets.

Available years: 2009/2014

Indicator: SNAP-authorized stores

Geographic level: County

Definition: The average monthly number of stores in the county authorized to accept SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, previously called Food Stamp Program) benefits.

Data sources: Store data are from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, SNAP Benefits Redemption Division. Stores authorized for SNAP include: supermarkets; large, medium and small grocery stores and convenience stores; superstores and supercenters; warehouse club stores; and specialized food stores (retail bakeries, meat and seafood markets, and produce markets).

Special notes: ERS used average monthly stores as the basis for the calculation of this variable. The numbers for both 2012 and 2016 versions of this variable were recalculated to reflect this new methodology and should be regarded as different from previous versions of the Atlas. ERS did not include meal service providers that serve eligible persons among SNAP-authorized stores during calculation of this variable.

Available years: 2012 and 2016

Indicator: SNAP-authorized stores (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the average monthly number of stores in the county authorized to accept SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, previously called Food Stamp Program) benefits. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Store data are from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, SNAP Benefits Redemption Division. Stores authorized for SNAP include: supermarkets; large, medium and small grocery stores and convenience stores; superstores and supercenters; warehouse club stores; and specialized food stores (retail bakeries, meat and seafood markets, and produce markets).

Special notes: ERS used average monthly stores as the basis for the calculation of this variable. The numbers for both 2012 and 2016 versions of this variable were recalculated to reflect this new methodology and should be regarded as different from previous versions of the Atlas. ERS did not include meal service providers that serve eligible persons among SNAP-authorized stores during calculation of this variable.

Available years: 2012/2016

Indicator: SNAP-authorized stores/1,000 pop

Geographic level: County

Definition: The average monthly number of stores in the county authorized to accept SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, previously called Food Stamp Program) per 1,000 county residents.

Data sources: Store data are from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, SNAP Benefits Redemption Division. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Stores authorized for SNAP include: supermarkets; large, medium and small grocery stores and convenience stores; superstores and supercenters; warehouse club stores; and specialized foodstores (retail bakeries, meat and seafood markets, and produce markets).

Special notes: ERS used average monthly stores as the basis for the calculation of this variable. The numbers for both 2012 and 2016 versions of this variable were recalculated to reflect this new methodology and should be regarded as different from previous versions of the Atlas. ERS did not include meal service providers that serve eligible persons among SNAP-authorized stores during calculation of this variable.

Available years: 2012 and 2016

Indicator: SNAP-authorized stores/1,000 pop (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the average monthly number of stores in the county authorized to accept SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, previously called Food Stamp Program) per 1,000 county residents. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Store data are from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, SNAP Benefits Redemption Division. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Stores authorized for SNAP include: supermarkets; large, medium and small grocery stores and convenience stores; superstores and supercenters; warehouse club stores; and specialized foodstores (retail bakeries, meat and seafood markets, and produce markets).

Special notes: ERS used average monthly stores as the basis for the calculation of this variable. The numbers for both 2012 and 2016 versions of this variable were recalculated to reflect this new methodology and should be regarded as different from previous versions of the Atlas. ERS did not include meal service providers that serve eligible persons among SNAP-authorized stores during calculation of this variable.

Available years: 2012/2016

Indicator: WIC-authorized stores

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of stores in a county that are authorized to accept WIC Program (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) benefits. Does not include direct distribution centers serving participants in Mississippi's WIC program. 

Data sources: Store data are from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, Supplemental Food Programs Division, Program Analysis and Monitoring Branch.

Available years: 2008 and 2012

Indicator: WIC-authorized stores (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of stores in a county that are authorized to accept WIC Program (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) benefits. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Store data are from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, Supplemental Food Programs Division, Program Analysis and Monitoring Branch.

Available years: 2008/2012

Indicator: WIC-authorized stores/1,000 pop

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of stores in a county that are authorized to accept WIC Program (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) benefits per 1,000 population.

Data sources: Store data are from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, Supplemental Food Programs Division, Program Analysis and Monitoring Branch. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates.

Available years: 2008 and 2012

Indicator: WIC-authorized stores/1,000 pop (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total number of WIC Program (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) stores in a county per 1,000 population. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Store data are from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, Supplemental Food Programs Division, Program Analysis and Monitoring Branch. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates.

Available years: 2008/2012

Category: Restaurant Availability and Expenditures

Indicator: Fast-food restaurants

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of limited-service restaurants in the county.

Data sources: Restaurant data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Limited-service restaurants (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 722211) include establishments primarily engaged in providing food services (except snack and nonalcoholic beverage bars) where patrons generally order or select items and pay before eating. Food and drink may be consumed on premises, taken out, or delivered to the customer's location. Some establishments in this industry may provide these food services in combination with alcoholic beverage sales.

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: Fast-food restaurants (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of limited-service restaurants in the county. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Restaurant data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Limited-service restaurants (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 722211) include establishments primarily engaged in providing food services (except snack and nonalcoholic beverage bars) where patrons generally order or select items and pay before eating. Food and drink may be consumed on premises, taken out, or delivered to the customer's location. Some establishments in this industry may provide these food services in combination with alcoholic beverage sales.

Available years: 2009/2014

Indicator: Fast-food restaurants/1,000 pop

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of limited-service restaurants in the county per 1,000 county residents.

Data sources: Restaurant data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Limited-service restaurants (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 722211) include establishments primarily engaged in providing food services (except snack and nonalcoholic beverage bars) where patrons generally order or select items and pay before eating. Food and drink may be consumed on premises, taken out, or delivered to the customer's location. Some establishments in this industry may provide these food services in combination with alcoholic beverage sales. 

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: Fast-food restaurants/1,000 pop (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of limited-service restaurants in the county per 1,000 residents. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Restaurant data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Limited-service restaurants (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 722211) include establishments primarily engaged in providing food services (except snack and nonalcoholic beverage bars) where patrons generally order or select items and pay before eating. Food and drink may be consumed on premises, taken out, or delivered to the customer's location. Some establishments in this industry may provide these food services in combination with alcoholic beverage sales.

Available years: 2009/2014

Indicator: Full-service restaurants

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of full-service restaurants in the county.

Data sources: Restaurant data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Full-service restaurants (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code 722110) include establishments primarily engaged in providing food services to patrons who order and are served while seated (i.e., waiter/waitress service) and pay after eating. These establishments may provide this type of food service to patrons in combination with selling alcoholic beverages, providing takeout services, or presenting live nontheatrical entertainment.

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: Full-service restaurants (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of full-service restaurants in the county. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Restaurant data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Full-service restaurants (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code 722110) include establishments primarily engaged in providing food services to patrons who order and are served while seated (i.e., waiter/waitress service) and pay after eating. These establishments may provide this type of food service to patrons in combination with selling alcoholic beverages, providing takeout services, or presenting live nontheatrical entertainment.

Available years: 2009/2014

Indicator: Full-service restaurants/1,000 pop

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of full-service restaurants in the county per 1,000 residents.

Data sources: Restaurant data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Full-service restaurants (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code 722110) include establishments primarily engaged in providing food services to patrons who order and are served while seated (i.e., waiter/waitress service) and pay after eating. These establishments may provide this type of food service to patrons in combination with selling alcoholic beverages, providing takeout services, or presenting live nontheatrical entertainment.

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: Full-service restaurants/1,000 pop (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of full-service restaurants in the county per 1,000 residents. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Store data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates.  Full-service restaurants (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code 722110) include establishments primarily engaged in providing food services to patrons who order and are served while seated (i.e., waiter/waitress service) and pay after eating. These establishments may provide this type of food service to patrons in combination with selling alcoholic beverages, providing takeout services, or presenting live nontheatrical entertainment.

Available years: 2009/2014

Indicator: Expenditures per capita, fast food*

Geographic level: State

Definition: Average expenditures (in 2012 dollars) on food purchased at limited-service restaurants (defined by 2007 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 7222 and 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 722513) by county residents.

Data sources: Economic Census, Accommodation and Food Services: Geographic Area Series, accessed at U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Limited-service restaurants include establishments primarily engaged in providing food services (except snack and nonalcoholic beverage bars) where patrons generally order or select items and pay before eating. Food and drink may be consumed on premises, taken out, or delivered to the customer's location. Some establishments in this industry may provide these food services in combination with alcoholic beverage sales.

Special notes: 2007: Summary Statistics for the United States, States, Metro Areas, Counties, and Places, Table EC0772A1; 2012: Summary Statistics for the United States, States, Metro Areas, Counties, and Places, Table EC1272A1.

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Expenditures per capita, restaurants*

Geographic level: State

Definition: Average expenditures (in 2012 dollars) on food purchased at full-service restaurants (defined by 2007 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 7221 and 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 722511) by county residents.

Data sources: Economic Census, Accommodation and Food Services: Geographic Area Series, accessed at U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Restaurants are establishments primarily engaged in providing food services to patrons who order and are served while seated (i.e., waiter/waitress service) and pay after eating. These establishments may provide this type of food service to patrons in combination with selling alcoholic beverages, providing takeout services, or presenting live nontheatrical entertainment.

Special notes: 2007: Summary Statistics for the United States, States, Metro Areas, Counties, and Places, Table EC0772A1; 2012: Summary Statistics for the United States, States, Metro Areas, Counties, and Places, Table EC1272A1.

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Category: Food Assistance

Indicator: SNAP redemptions/SNAP-authorized stores

Geographic level: County

Definition: The average SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) redemption amount per SNAP-authorized store in a county.

Data sources: Store and redemption data are from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, SNAP Benefits Redemption Division. Stores authorized for SNAP include: supermarkets; large, medium and small grocery stores and convenience stores; superstores and supercenters; warehouse club stores; and specialized food stores (retail bakeries, meat and seafood markets, and produce markets).

Special notes: ERS used average monthly stores as the basis for the calculation of this variable. The numbers for both 2012 and 2016 versions of this variable were recalculated to reflect this new methodology and should be regarded as different from previous versions of the Atlas. ERS did not include meal service providers that serve eligible persons among SNAP-authorized stores during calculation of this variable.

Available years: 2012 and 2016

Indicator: SNAP redemptions/SNAP-authorized stores (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the average SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) redemption amount per SNAP-authorized store in a county. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Store and redemption data are from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, SNAP Benefits Redemption Division. Stores authorized for SNAP include: supermarkets; large, medium and small grocery stores and convenience stores; superstores and supercenters; warehouse club stores; and specialized food stores (retail bakeries, meat and seafood markets, and produce markets).

Special notes: ERS used average monthly stores as the basis for the calculation of this variable. The numbers for both 2012 and 2016 versions of this variable were recalculated to reflect this new methodology and should be regarded as different from previous versions of the Atlas. ERS did not include meal service providers that serve eligible persons among SNAP-authorized stores during calculation of this variable.

Available years: 2012/2016

Indicator: SNAP participants (percent pop)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The percentage of the State population receiving SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, previously called Food Stamp Program) benefits in an average month.

Data sources: Tabulations by USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), published February 3, 2017. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates.

Available years: 2012 and 2016

Indicator: SNAP participants (percentage point change)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The percentage point change in the average monthly percentage of the population receiving SNAP benefits. Percentage point change is calculated as (Year 2 – Year 1).

Data sources: Tabulations by USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), published February 3, 2017. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates.

Available years: 2012/2016

Indicator: SNAP benefits per capita

Geographic level: County

Definition: The average monthly dollar amount of SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, previously called Food Stamp Program) benefits in a county divided by the county population. 

Data sources: SNAP benefits are from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Accounts Directorate. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates.

Special notes: For the 2015 SNAP benefits/1,000 pop calculation, 2015 estimates from the 2016 annual estimates of the resident population estimates for counties are used in the denominator.

Available years: 2010 and 2015

Indicator: SNAP benefits per capita (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the per capita average monthly dollar amount of SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, previously called Food Stamp Program) benefits in a county. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: SNAP benefits are from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Accounts Directorate. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates.

Special notes: For the 2015 SNAP benefits/1,000 pop calculation, 2015 estimates from the 2016 annual estimates of the resident population estimates for counties are used in the denominator.

Available years: 2010/2015

Indicator: SNAP participants (percent eligible pop)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: An estimate of the number of people in the State who participated in SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, previously called Food Stamp Program) divided by the number of people eligible to participate in the State.

Data sources: Cunnyngham, Karen E. Reaching Those in Need: Estimates of State Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Rates in 2013, prepared by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (MPR) for USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, February 2016, Page 5.

Available years: 2008 and 2013

Indicator: National School Lunch Program participants (percent pop)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The average daily percentage of the population participating in the National School Lunch Program. 

Data sources: Tabulations by USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), published August 5, 2016. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Participation data are 9-month averages; summer months (June-August) are excluded. Participation is based on average daily meals divided by an attendance factor of 0.927.

Special notes: Data for 2009 were updated from the Food and Nutrition Service's "preliminary" version to the "final" version.

Available years: 2009 and 2015

Indicator: National School Lunch Program participants (percentage point change)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The percentage point change in the average daily percentage of the population participating in the National School Lunch Program (excludes June, July, and August). Percentage point change is calculated as (Year 2 – Year 1).

Data sources: Tabulations by USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), published August 5, 2016. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Special notes: Data for 2009 were updated from the Food and Nutrition Service's "preliminary" version to the "final" version.

Available years: 2009/2015

Indicator: Students eligible for free lunch (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of total students eligible to participate in the National School Lunch Program under the Free Lunch Program.

Data sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: Students eligible for reduced-price lunch (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of total students eligible to participate in the National School Lunch Program under the Reduced-price Lunch Program.

Data sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: School Breakfast Program participants (percent pop)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The average daily percentage of the population participating in the School Breakfast Program. 

Data sources: Tabulations by USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), published August 5, 2016. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Participation data are 9-month averages; summer months (June-August) are excluded. Participation is based on average daily meals divided by an attendance factor of 0.927.

Special notes: Data for 2009 were updated from the Food and Nutrition Service's "preliminary" version to the "final" version.

Available years: 2009 and 2015

Indicator: School Breakfast Program participants (percentage point change)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The percentage point change in the average daily percentage of the population participating in the School Breakfast Program (excludes June, July, and August). Percentage point change is calculated as (Year 2 – Year 1).

Data sources: Tabulations by USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), published August 5, 2016. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Special notes: Data for 2009 were updated from the Food and Nutrition Service's "preliminary" version to the "final" version.

Available years: 2009/2015

Indicator: Summer Food Service Program participants (percent pop)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The average daily percentage of the population participating in the Summer Food Service Program (measured in July). 

Data sources: Tabulations by USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), published August 5, 2016. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Special notes: Data for 2009 were updated from the Food and Nutrition Service's "preliminary" version to the "final" version.

Available years: 2009 and 2015

Indicator: Summer Food Service Program participants (percentage point change)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The percentage point change in the average daily percentage of the population participating in the Summer Food Service Program (measured in July). Percentage point change is calculated as (Year 2 – Year 1).

Data sources: Tabulations by USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), published August 5, 2016. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Average daily attendance is reported for July only, the peak month of national program activity.

Special notes: Data for 2009 were updated from the Food and Nutrition Service's "preliminary" version to the "final" version.

Available years: 2009/2015

Indicator: WIC redemptions per capita

Geographic level: County

Definition: The total dollar amount of WIC Program (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) benefits redeemed through WIC-authorized stores in a county divided by the total county population. Redemptions are set to -9999 when data are not available or when there are fewer than 4 WIC-authorized stores in a county.

Data sources: Redemption data are from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, Supplemental Food Programs Division, Program Analysis and Monitoring Branch. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Available years: 2008 and 2012

Indicator: WIC redemptions per capita (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total dollar amount of WIC Program (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) redemptions in a county per capita. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Redemption data are from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, Supplemental Food Programs Division, Program Analysis and Monitoring Branch. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Available years: 2008/2012

Indicator: WIC redemptions/WIC-authorized stores

Geographic level: County

Definition: The total dollar amount of WIC Program (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) benefits redeemed through WIC-authorized stores in a county divided by the number of WIC-authorized stores. 

Data sources: Store and redemption data are from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, Supplemental Food Programs Division, Program Analysis and Monitoring Branch. 

Available years: 2008 and 2012

Indicator: WIC redemptions/WIC-authorized stores (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the average WIC Program (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) redemption amount per WIC-authorized store. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: Store and redemption data are from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, Supplemental Food Programs Division, Program Analysis and Monitoring Branch. 

Available years: 2008/2012

Indicator: WIC participants (percent pop)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The monthly average percentage of the population who received at least one WIC Program (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) food instrument or food during the report month or were breastfed by a participating mother. 

Data sources: Tabulations by USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), published August 5, 2016. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Participation data are 12-month averages.

Available years: 2009 and 2015

Indicator: WIC participants (percentage point change)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The percentage point change in the monthly average percentage of the population who received at least one WIC Program (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) food instrument or food during the report month or were breastfed by a participating mother. Percentage point change is calculated as (Year 2 - Year 1).

Data sources: Tabulations by USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), published August 5, 2016. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Participation data are 12-month averages. 

Available years: 2009/2015

Indicator: Child and Adult Care (percent pop)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The average daily attendance for all childcare centers participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (including childcare centers, family daycare homes, and adult-care centers) divided by the State population (displayed as a percentage).  

Data sources: Tabulations by USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), published August 5, 2016. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. Average daily attendance data are reported on a quarterly basis only (March, June, September, and December). Annual averages are divided by four. 

Special notes: Data for 2009 were updated from the Food and Nutrition Service's "preliminary" version to the "final" version.

Available years: 2009 and 2015

Indicator: Child and Adult Care (percentage point change)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The percentage point change in the percentage of the population attending childcare centers participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (including childcare centers, family daycare homes, and adult-care centers). Percentage point change is calculated as (Year 2 – Year 1).

Data sources: Tabulations by USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), published August 5, 2016. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Special notes: Data for 2009 were updated from the Food and Nutrition Service's "preliminary" version to the "final" version.

Available years: 2009/2015

Indicator: FDPIR Sites

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of FDPIR sites per county in 2012. The Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR) is a Federal nutrition assistance program for low-income households residing on Indian reservations and low-income Indian households living in designated service areas near reservations or in Oklahoma. FDPIR sites are central locations within Tribal lands where the monthly benefit package may be distributed.

Data sources: Redemption site data are from USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, Food Distribution Division, Supplemental Nutrition and Safety Programs. 

Available year: 2012

Indicator: SNAP online application*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The State allows households to submit a SNAP application online during at least one month in the calendar year.  

Data sources: USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS), SNAP Policy Database

Available year: 2009 and 2016

Indicator: SNAP Combined Application Project*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The State operates a Combined Application Project for recipients of Supplemental Security Income (SSI), so that SSI recipients are able to use a streamlined SNAP application process during at least one month in the calendar year.  

Data sources: USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS), SNAP Policy Database

Available years: 2009 and 2016

Indicator: SNAP broad-based categorical eligibility*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The State used broad-based categorical eligibility to increase or eliminate the asset test and/or to increase the gross income limit for virtually all SNAP applicants in at least one month during the calendar year.  

Data sources: USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS), SNAP Policy Database

Available years: 2009 and 2016

Indicator: SNAP simplified reporting*

Geographic level: State

Definition: For households with earnings, the State used the simplified reporting option that reduces requirements for reporting changes in household circumstances during at least 1 month of the calendar year.  

Data sources: USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS), SNAP Policy Database

Available years: 2009 and 2016

Category: State Food Insecurity

Data are from the report:

Household Food Security in the United States in 2015

Indicator: Household food insecurity (percent, 3-year average)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: Prevalence of household-level food insecurity by State. Food-insecure households were unable, at times during the year, to provide adequate food for one or more household members because the household lacked money and other resources for food.

Data sources: ERS estimates using 3 years of data from the Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement, as reported in Table 5 in the referenced report, Household Food Security in the United States in 2015 (September 2016). The food security survey asks one adult respondent in each household a series of questions about experiences and behaviors that indicate food insecurity. The food security status of the household was assessed based on the number of food-insecure conditions reported (such as being unable to afford balanced meals, cutting the size of meals because of too little money for food, or being hungry because of too little money for food). Note: margins of error are substantial for some States; comparisons between States should take into consideration margins of error published in the source report.

Available years: 2010-12 and 2013-15 (aggregate data)

Indicator: Household food insecurity (percentage point change)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The percentage point change in the prevalence of household-level food insecurity by State. Food-insecure households were unable, at times during the year, to provide adequate food for one or more household members because the household lacked money and other resources for food.

Data sources: ERS estimates using 6 years of data from the Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement, as reported in Table 5 in the referenced report, Household Food Security in the United States in 2015 (September 2016). The food security survey asks one adult respondent in each household a series of questions about experiences and behaviors that indicate food insecurity. The food security status of the household was assessed based on the number of food-insecure conditions reported (such as being unable to afford balanced meals, cutting the size of meals because of too little money for food, or being hungry because of too little money for food). Note: margins of error are substantial for some States; comparisons between States should take into consideration margins of error published in the source report.

Available years: 2010-12/2013-15 (aggregate data)

Indicator: Household very low food security (percent, 3-year average)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: Prevalence of household-level very low food security by State. In households with very low food security, food intake of one or more members was reduced and eating patterns were disrupted at times during the year because of insufficient money and other resources for food.

Data sources: ERS estimates using 3 years of data from the Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement, as reported in Table 5 in the referenced report, Household Food Security in the United States in 2015 (September 2016). The food security survey asks one adult respondent in each household a series of questions about experiences and behaviors that indicate food insecurity. The food security status of the household was assessed based on the number of food-insecure conditions reported (such as being unable to afford balanced meals, cutting the size of meals because of too little money for food, or being hungry because of too little money for food). Note: margins of error are substantial for some States; comparisons between States should take into consideration margins of error published in the source report.

Available years: 2010-12 and 2013-15 (aggregate data)

Indicator: Household very low food security (percentage point change)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The percentage point change in the prevalence of household-level very low food security by State. In households with very low food security, food intake of one or more members was reduced and eating patterns were disrupted at times during the year because of insufficient money and other resources for food.

Data sources: ERS estimates using 6 years of data from the Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement, as reported in Table 5 in the referenced report, Household Food Security in the United States in 2015 (September 2016). The food security survey asks one adult respondent in each household a series of questions about experiences and behaviors that indicate food insecurity. The food security status of the household was assessed based on the number of food-insecure conditions reported (such as being unable to afford balanced meals, cutting the size of meals because of too little money for food, or being hungry because of too little money for food). Note: margins of error are substantial for some States; comparisons between States should take into consideration margins of error published in the source report.

Available years: 2010-12/2013-15 (aggregate data)

Indicator: Child food insecurity (percent households, multi-year average)*

Data are from the report:

Food Insecurity in Households With Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics, 2010-11

Geographic level: State

Definition: Percentage of households with children in which children were food insecure, by State. Households with food-insecure children were unable, at times during the year, to provide adequate food for one or more child because the household lacked money and other resources for food. For most of these households, inadequacy was in quality and variety of foods; for about one in ten, amounts of food provided were also inadequate.

Data sources: Data are from an annual survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau as a supplement to the monthly Current Population Survey. USDA sponsors the annual survey, and USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS) compiles and analyzes the responses. The surveys were of representative samples of the U.S. civilian population and included between 15,000 and 18,000 households with children each year. (However, about a fourth of the sample in the 2007 survey was not used for food security estimates because a proposed wording change tested in those households did not perform adequately.) The survey is conducted both by telephone and in person so that households with no telephone are not underrepresented. The food security survey asked one adult respondent in each household a series of questions about experiences and behaviors that indicate food insecurity. The food security status of children in the household was assessed by responses to a subset of questions about the conditions and experiences of children. For more information on the methodology, see the referenced report, Food Insecurity in Households With Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics, 2010-11 (EIB 113, table 3, May 2013). Note: margins of error are substantial for some States; comparisons between States should take into consideration margins of error published in the source report.

Available years: 2001-07 and 2003-11 (aggregate data)

Category: Food Prices and Taxes

Indicator: Price of low-fat milk/national average**

Geographic level: Region (26 markets and 9 nonmetropolitan census divisions as proscribed by the Nielsen data)

Definition: Regional average price of low-fat milk relative to the national average price. Low-fat milk includes nonfat and 1-percent milk.  

Data sources: USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS), Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database, QFAHPD-2. 

Available year: 2010

Indicator: Price of sodas/national average**

Geographic level: Region (26 markets and 9 nonmetropolitan census divisions as proscribed by the Nielsen data)

Definition: Regional average price of sodas relative to the national average price. Sodas include carbonated diet and caloric-sweetened beverages.  

Data sources: USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS), Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database, QFAHPD-2. 

Available year: 2010

Indicator: Price of low-fat milk/price of sodas**

Geographic level: Region (26 markets and 9 nonmetropolitan census divisions as proscribed by the Nielsen data)

Definition: Ratio of the regional average price of low-fat milk to the regional average price of sodas relative to the national average price ratio. Low-fat milk includes nonfat and 1-percent milk. Sodas include carbonated diet and caloric-sweetened beverages.  

Data sources: USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS), Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database, QFAHPD-2. 

Available year: 2010

Indicator: Soda sales tax, retail stores*

Geographic level: State

Definition: Additional tax on soda purchased at retail stores. Additional rates are percentage points added to general food sales tax rates.  

Data sources: 2014 estimates were compiled by The MayaTech Corporation for the University of Illinois at Chicago, Bridging the Gap Program, 2014. 

Available year: 2014

Indicator: Soda sales tax, vending*

Geographic level: State

Definition: Additional tax on soda drinks purchased at vending machines. Additional rates are percentage points added to general food sales tax rates.  

Data sources: 2014 estimates were compiled by The MayaTech Corporation for the University of Illinois at Chicago, Bridging the Gap Program, 2014. 

Available year: 2014

Indicator: Chip and pretzel sales tax, retail stores*

Geographic level: State

Definition: Additional tax on chips and pretzels purchased at retail stores. Additional rates are percentage points added to general food sales tax rates.  

Data sources: 2014 estimates were compiled by The MayaTech Corporation for the University of Illinois at Chicago, Bridging the Gap Program, 2014. 

Available year: 2014

Indicator: Chip and pretzel sales tax, vending*

Geographic level: State

Definition: Additional tax on chips and pretzels purchased at vending machines. Additional rates are percentage points added to general food sales tax rates.  

Data sources: 2014 estimates were compiled by The MayaTech Corporation for the University of Illinois at Chicago, Bridging the Gap Program, 2014. 

Available year: 2014

Indicator: General food sales tax, retail stores*

Geographic level: State

Definition: General food sales tax, where the definition of "food" varies by State (documentation available at Bridging the Gap Program, University of Illinois at Chicago).  

Data sources: 2014 estimates were compiled by The MayaTech Corporation for the University of Illinois at Chicago, Bridging the Gap Program, 2014. 

Available year: 2014

Category: Local Foods

Indicator: Farms with direct sales

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farms in the county that sell at least some products directly to final consumers. This includes sales from roadside stands, farmers markets, pick-your-own, door-to-door, etc. It does not include sales of craft items or processed products, such as jellies, sausages, and hams.  

Data sources: 2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Farms with direct sales (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of farms in the county that sell at least some products directly to final consumers. This includes sales from roadside stands, farmers markets, pick-your-own, door-to-door, etc. It does not include sales of craft items or processed products, such as jellies, sausages, and hams. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100].   

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Farms with direct sales (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of farms in the county that sell at least some products directly to final consumers. This includes sales from roadside stands, farmers markets, pick-your-own, door-to-door, etc. It does not include sales of craft items or processed products, such as jellies, sausages, and hams.  

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Direct farm sales (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of the total value of farm sales in the county sold directly to final consumers in 2007 and 2012. This includes sales from roadside stands, farmers markets, pick-your-own, door-to-door, etc. It does not include sales of craft items or processed products, such as jellies, sausages, and hams.  

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Direct farm sales

Geographic level: County

Definition: The total value of farm sales direct to consumers in thousands of dollars. This includes sales from roadside stands, farmers markets, pick-your-own, door-to-door, etc. It does not include sales of craft items or processed products, such as jellies, sausages, and hams.  

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Direct farm sales (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total value of farm sales direct to consumers in thousands of dollars. This includes sales from roadside stands, farmers markets, pick-your-own, door-to-door, etc. It does not include sales of craft items or processed products, such as jellies, sausages, and hams. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100].   

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Direct farm sales per capita

Geographic level: County

Definition: The total value of farm sales direct to consumers (including sales from roadside stands, farmers markets, pick-your-own, door-to-door, etc., but not sales of craft items or processed products, such as jellies, sausages, and hams) divided by the number of residents of the county.  

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Direct farm sales per capita (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total value of farm sales direct to consumers (including sales from roadside stands, farmers markets, pick-your-own, door-to-door, etc., but not sales of craft items or processed products, such as jellies, sausages, and hams) divided by the number of residents of the county. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100].   

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Farmers' markets

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farmers' markets in the county.  

Data sources: County-level data for 2009 and 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Available years: 2009 and 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of farmers' markets in the county. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100].   

Data sources: County-level data for 2009 and 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Available years: 2009/2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets/1,000 pop

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farmers' markets in the county per 1,000 county residents.  

Data sources: County-level data for 2009 and 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Special notes: For 2016 farmers' markets/1,000 population calculation, 2016 annual estimates of the resident population estimates for counties are used in the denominator.

Available years: 2009 and 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets/1,000 pop (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of farmers’ markets per 1,000 county residents. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100].   

Data sources: County-level data for 2009 and 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Special notes: For 2016 farmers' markets/1,000 population calculation, 2016 annual estimates of the resident population estimates for counties are used in the denominator.

Available years: 2009/2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report accepting SNAP

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farmers' markets in the county that accept SNAP benefits.  

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Special notes: The Food and Nutrition Service maintains a list of farmers' markets currently authorized to accept SNAP. See SNAP and Farmers' Markets.

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report accepting SNAP (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of all farmers' markets in the county that accept SNAP benefits.  

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Special notes: The Food and Nutrition Service maintains a list of farmers' markets currently authorized to accept SNAP. See SNAP and Farmers' Markets.

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report accepting WIC vouchers

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farmers’ markets in the county that accept WIC vouchers.   

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. WIC vouchers are for a specific amount of food (i.e., one loaf of whole wheat bread). A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers.  

Available years: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report accepting WIC vouchers (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of all farmers’ markets in the county that accept WIC vouchers.   

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. WIC vouchers are for a specific amount of food (i.e., one loaf of whole wheat bread). A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report accepting WIC Cash

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farmers' markets in the county that accept WIC Cash Value vouchers.  

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. WIC Cash Value vouchers are for a specific dollar amount for fruits and vegetables. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report accepting WIC Cash (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of all farmers' markets in the county that accept WIC Cash Value vouchers.  

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. WIC Cash Value vouchers are for a specific dollar amount for fruits and vegetables. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report accepting SFMNP

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farmers' markets in the county that accept Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) benefits.

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report accepting SFMNP (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of all farmers' markets in the county that accept Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) benefits.  

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report accepting credit cards

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farmers’ markets in the county that accept credit cards.   

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report accepting credit cards (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of all farmers' markets in the county that accept credit cards.  

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report selling fruit and vegetables

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farmers’ markets in the county that sell fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, herbs, nuts, dry beans, grains, mushrooms, and/or wild harvested forest products.   

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers.

Special notes: The products available in this category have changed since the last update. Therefore, estimates of products available using 2016 data and beyond are not comparable to earlier years.

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report selling fruit and vegetables (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of all farmers' markets in the county that sell fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, herbs, nuts, dry beans, grains, mushrooms, and/or wild harvested forest products.  

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Special notes: The products available in this category have changed since the last update. Therefore, estimates of products available using 2016 data and beyond are not comparable to earlier years.

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report selling animal products

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farmers’ markets in the county that sell meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, and/or cheese.  

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report selling animal products (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of all farmers' markets in the county that sell meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, and/or cheese. 

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report selling baked and prepared goods

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farmers’ markets in the county that sell baked goods and/or prepared foods.  

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report selling baked and prepared goods (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of all farmers' markets in the county that sell baked goods and/or prepared foods.

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report selling other products

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farmers' markets in the county that sell other products, including honey, jams, maple syrup, wine, coffee, juices, and/or tofu.   

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Special notes: The products available in this category have changed since the last update. Therefore, estimates of products available using 2016 data and beyond are not comparable to earlier years.

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Farmers' markets that report selling other products (percent)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of all farmers' markets in the county that sell other products, including honey, jams, maple syrup, wine, coffee, juices, and/or tofu.

Data sources: County-level data for 2016 farmers' markets were compiled by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Services Division. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of retail sales are direct to consumers. 

Special notes: The products available in this category have changed since the last update. Therefore, estimates of products available using 2016 data and beyond are not comparable to earlier years.

Available year: 2016

Indicator: Vegetable farms

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farms in the county with vegetables, potatoes, or melons harvested for sale.

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Vegetable farms (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of farms in the county with vegetables, potatoes, or melons harvested for sale. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Vegetable acres harvested

Geographic level: County

Definition: The total number of acres of vegetables, potatoes, or melons harvested for sale in the county.

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Vegetable acres harvested (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total number of acres of vegetables, potatoes, or melons harvested for sale in the county. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Vegetable acres harvested/1,000 pop

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of acres of vegetables, potatoes, or melons harvested for sale per 1,000 county residents.

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Vegetable acres harvested/1,000 pop (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total number of acres of vegetables, potatoes, or melons harvested for sale per 1,000 county residents. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Farms with vegetables harvested for fresh market

Geographic level: County

Definition: The total number of farms with vegetables, potatoes, and melons harvested for fresh-market sale (as opposed to harvested for processing).

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Farms with vegetables harvested for fresh market (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total number of farms with vegetables, potatoes, and melons harvested for fresh-market sale (as opposed to harvested for processing). Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Vegetable acres harvested for fresh market

Geographic level: County

Definition: The total number of acres of vegetables, potatoes, or melons harvested for fresh-market sale (as opposed to harvested for processing).

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Vegetable acres harvested for fresh market (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total number of acres of vegetables, potatoes, or melons harvested for fresh-market sale (as opposed to harvested for processing). Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Vegetable acres harvested for fresh market/1,000 pop

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of acres of vegetables, potatoes, or melons harvested for fresh-market sale (as opposed to harvested for processing) per 1,000 county residents.

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Vegetable acres harvested for fresh market/1,000 pop (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total number of acres of vegetables, potatoes, or melons harvested for fresh-market sale (as opposed to harvested for processing) per 1,000 county residents. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Orchard farms

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farms with land in fruit trees, citrus or other groves, vineyards or nut trees, including trees and groves of nonbearing age.

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Orchard farms (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of farms with land in fruit trees, citrus or other groves, vineyards or nut trees, including trees and groves of nonbearing age. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Orchard acres 

Geographic level: County

Definition: The total number of acres of land in fruit trees, citrus or other groves, vineyards and nut trees, including trees and groves of nonbearing age.

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Orchard acres (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total number of acres of land in fruit trees, citrus or other groves, vineyards and nut trees, including trees and groves of nonbearing age. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Orchard acres/1,000 pop

Geographic level: County

Definition: The total number of acres of land in fruit trees, citrus or other groves, vineyards and nut trees, including trees and groves of nonbearing age per 1,000 county residents.

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Orchard acres/1,000 pop (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total number of acres of land in fruit trees, citrus or other groves, vineyards and nut trees, including trees and groves of nonbearing age per 1,000 county residents. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Berry farms

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farms with land in berries, including blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, and other types.

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Berry farms (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of farms with land in berries, including blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, and other types. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Berry acres 

Geographic level: County

Definition: The total number of acres of land in berry production, including blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, and other types.

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Berry acres (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total number of acres of land in berry production, including blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, and other types. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Berry acres/1,000 pop

Geographic level: County

Definition: The total number of acres of land in berry production, including blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, and other types per 1,000 county residents.

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Berry acres/1,000 pop (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total number of acres of land in berry production, including blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, and other types per 1,000 county residents. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Small slaughterhouse facilities

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of slaughterhouses (poultry and other animals) that meet the U.S. Small Business Administration’s standard for classification as a small business (defined as fewer than 500 employees).

Data sources2007 Economic Census for NAICS industries 311611 and 311615 and the 2012 Economic Census for NAICS industries 311611 and 311615. 

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Small slaughterhouse facilities (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percent change in the number of slaughterhouses (poultry and other animals) that meet the U.S. Small Business Administration’s standard for classification as a small business (defined as fewer than 500 employees). Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Economic Census for NAICS industries 311611 and 311615 and the 2012 Economic Census for NAICS industries 311611 and 311615. 

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Greenhouse vegetable and fresh herb farms

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farms with at least some production of vegetables or fresh-cut herbs produced under glass or other protection (e.g., greenhouses).

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Greenhouse vegetable and fresh herb farms (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of farms with at least some production of vegetables or fresh-cut herbs produced under glass or other protection (e.g., greenhouses). Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Greenhouse vegetable and fresh herb sq feet 

Geographic level: County

Definition: The total square feet of land dedicated to the production of vegetables or fresh-cut herbs under glass or other protection (e.g., greenhouses).

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Greenhouse vegetable and fresh herb sq feet (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total square feet of land dedicated to the production of vegetables or fresh-cut herbs under glass or other protection (e.g., greenhouses). Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Greenhouse vegetable and fresh herb sq feet/1,000 pop

Geographic level: County

Definition: The total square feet of land dedicated to the production of vegetables or fresh-cut herbs under glass or other protection (e.g., greenhouses) per 1,000 county residents.

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Greenhouse vegetable and fresh herb sq feet/1,000 pop (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total square feet of land dedicated to the production of vegetables or fresh-cut herbs under glass or other protection (e.g., greenhouses) per 1,000 county residents. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Food hubs

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of self-identified Food Hub organizations operating within each county.

Data sources: 2016 estimates are compiled from USDA's AMS " Working List of Food Hubs." Food hubs are businesses or organizations that connect farmers and buyers by offering a suite of production, distribution, and marketing services. 

Available year: 2016

Indicator: CSA farms 

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farms marketing at least some products through a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) arrangement.

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: CSA farms (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of farms marketing at least some products through a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) arrangement. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Agritourism operations 

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of farms reporting sales from agritourism and/or recreational services.

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Agritourism operations (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of farms reporting sales from agritourism and/or recreational services. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Agritourism receipts 

Geographic level: County

Definition: The total farm revenue derived from agritourism and/or recreational services.

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007 and 2012

Indicator: Agritourism receipts (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the total farm revenue derived from agritourism and/or recreational services. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources2007 Census of Agriculture and 2012 Census of Agriculture

Available years: 2007/2012

Indicator: Farm to school program

Geographic level: County

Definition: Counties with one or more farm to school programs where 1=one or more "farm-to-school" programs and 0=no such participation within the county. These programs include: direct sourcing from local producers, local sourcing through the Department of Defense procurement system (known as “DOD Fresh”), school gardens, farm tours, farm-related nutrition education or other classroom activities, and school menus and snacks highlighting locally sourced or locally available foods.

Data sources: The National Farm to School Network conducted surveys on whether school districts conducted farm-to-school activities in school year 2011-12 or school year 2012-13, and compiled the data from these surveys as well as a self-reporting registry maintained by the Network since 2007, supplemented by the Network’s periodic updating efforts. To map farm-to-school programs by county, the list of programs was linked to Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) county codes if the program covered the whole county, National Center of Education Statistics Common Core of Data (CCD) school district codes if the program covered the school district, and CCD school codes if the program was limited to an individual school. A county is counted as having a farm-to-school program whether the program covers the whole county or whether the program operates only in a school or school district within the county. 

Available years: 2009 and 2013

Category: Health and Physical Activity

Indicator: High schoolers physically active (percent)*

Geographic level: State

Definition: The percentage of high school students who self-report participating in any kind of physical activity that increased their heart rate and made them breathe hard some of the time for a total of at least 60 minutes per day on each of the 7 days before the survey.

Data sources: Tabulations of data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

Available year: 2015

Indicator: Adult diabetes rate

Geographic level: County

Definition: Estimates of the age-adjusted percentage of persons age 20 and older with diabetes (gestational diabetes excluded).

Data sources: 2008 estimates are from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). CDC used data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 2008, 2009, and 2010 and from the U.S. Census Bureau. See Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for a description of the methodology. 2013 estimates are from CDC's Division of Diabetes Translation website

Available years: 2008 and 2013

Indicator: Adult obesity rate

Geographic level: County

Definition: Estimates of the age-adjusted percentage of persons age 20 and older who are obese, where obesity is a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than or equal to 30 kilograms per meters squared.

Data sources: 2008 estimates are from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). CDC used data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 2008, 2009, and 2010 and from the U.S. Census Bureau. See Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for a description of the methodology. 2013 estimates are from CDC's Division of Diabetes Translation website

Special notes: In 2011, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) began to use a new sampling frame and weighting methodology. Therefore, estimates for indicators using 2011 data and beyond are not comparable to earlier years.

Available years: 2008 and 2013

Indicator: Recreation and fitness facilities

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of "fitness and recreation centers" in a county, where "fitness and recreation centers" (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 713940) are establishments primarily engaged in operating fitness and recreational sports facilities featuring exercise and other active physical fitness conditioning or recreational sports activities, such as swimming, skating, or racquet sports.

Data sources: U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns

Special notes: In 2011, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) began to use a new sampling frame and weighting methodology. Therefore, estimates for indicators using 2011 data and beyond are not comparable to earlier years.

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: Recreation and fitness facilities (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percent change in the number of "fitness and recreation centers" in a county, where "fitness and recreation centers" (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 713940) are establishments primarily engaged in operating fitness and recreational sports facilities featuring exercise and other active physical fitness conditioning or recreational sports activities, such as swimming, skating, or racquet sports. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns

Available years: 2009/2014

Indicator: Recreation and fitness facilities/1,000 pop

Geographic level: County

Definition: The number of "fitness and recreation centers" in a county divided by the number of county residents, where "fitness and recreation centers" (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 713940) are establishments primarily engaged in operating fitness and recreational sports facilities featuring exercise and other active physical fitness conditioning or recreational sports activities, such as swimming, skating, or racquet sports.

Data sources: U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates.

Available years: 2009 and 2014

Indicator: Recreation and fitness facilities/1,000 pop (percent change)

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percent change in the number of "fitness and recreation centers" in a county divided by the number of county residents, where "fitness and recreation centers" (defined by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 713940) are establishments primarily engaged in operating fitness and recreational sports facilities featuring exercise and other active physical fitness conditioning or recreational sports activities, such as swimming, skating, or racquet sports. Percent change indicators are calculated as [((Year 2 – Year 1) / Year 1) x 100]. 

Data sources: U.S. Census Bureau, County Business Patterns. Population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates.

Available years: 2009/2014

Category: Socioeconomic Characteristics

Indicator: Percent White

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of the county resident population that is non-Hispanic White.

Data sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census

Available year: 2010

Indicator: Percent Black

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of the county resident population that is non-Hispanic Black or African American.

Data sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census

Available year: 2010

Indicator: Percent Hispanic

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of the county resident population that is of Hispanic origin.

Data sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census

Available year: 2010

Indicator: Percent Asian

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of the county resident population that is Asian.

Data sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census

Available year: 2010

Indicator: Percent American Indian or Alaska Native

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of the county resident population that is American Indian or Alaska Native.

Data sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census

Available year: 2010

Indicator: Percent Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of the county resident population that is Hawaiian or Pacific Islander.

Data sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census

Available year: 2010

Indicator: Percent population 65 years or older

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of the county resident population 65 years old or older.

Data sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census

Available year: 2010

Indicator: Percent population under age 18

Geographic level: County

Definition: The percentage of the county resident population under the age of 18.

Data sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census

Available year: 2010

Indicator: Median household income

Geographic level: County

Definition: Median income by household: an income level that divides county households in half, one half with income above the median and the other half with income below the median; includes income of all household members 15 years old or older.

Data sources: USDA's Economic Research Service, Atlas of Rural and Small-Town America, using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates

Available year: 2015

Indicator: Poverty rate

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percent of the county population living in families with income below the poverty threshold; poverty status thresholds vary by family size, number of children, and age of householder. If a family's pre-tax money income is less than the dollar value of their threshold, then that family and every individual in it are considered to be poor. For people not living in families, poverty status is determined by comparing the individual's income to his or her poverty threshold. 

Data sources: USDA's Economic Research Service, Atlas of Rural and Small-Town America, using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates

Available year: 2015

Indicator: Persistent-poverty counties

Geographic level: County

Definition: Counties where the poverty rate of residents was 20 percent or more in the 1980, 1990, and 2000 decennial censuses and the American Community Survey 5-year estimates for 2007-2011; where 1=persistent-poverty county and 0=otherwise.

Data sources: USDA's Economic Research Service, Atlas of Rural and Small Town America, County Typology Codes, using data from the U.S. Census Bureau.

Available year: 2010

Indicator: Child poverty rate

Geographic level: County

Definition: Percent of the county population under age 18 living in families with income below the poverty threshold; poverty status thresholds vary by family size, number of children, and age of householder. If a family's pre-tax money income is less than the dollar value of the threshold, then that family and every individual in it are considered to be poor. For people not living in families, poverty status is determined by comparing the individual's income to his or her poverty threshold.

Data sources: USDA's Economic Research Service, Atlas of Rural and Small-Town America, using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates.  

Available year: 2015 

Indicator: Persistent-child-poverty counties

Geographic level: County

Definition: Counties where the poverty rate of children under age 18 was 20 percent or more in the 1980, 1990, and 2000 decennial censuses and the American Community Survey 5-year estimates for 2007-2011; where 1=persistent-child-poverty county and 0=otherwise.

Data sources: USDA's Economic Research Service, Atlas of Rural and Small Town America, County Typology Codes, using data from the U.S. Census Bureau.

Available year: 2010

Indicator: Metro/nonmetro counties

Geographic level: County

Definition: Classification of counties by metro or nonmetro definition, where 1=metro county; 0=nonmetro county; metro areas include all counties containing one or more urbanized areas: high-density urban areas containing 50,000 people or more; metro areas also include outlying counties that are economically tied to the central counties, as measured by the share of workers commuting on a daily basis to the central counties. Nonmetro counties are outside the boundaries of metro areas and have no cities with 50,000 residents or more.

Data sources: USDA's Economic Research Service, Atlas of Rural and Small Town America, using data from the Office of Management and Budget, Statistical Programs and Standards.

Available year: 2010

Indicator: Population-loss counties

Geographic level: County

Definition: Counties where the number of residents declined both between 1990 and 2000 and between 2000 and 2010, where 1=population-loss county and 0=otherwise. 

Data sources: USDA's Economic Research Service, Atlas of Rural and Small Town America, County Typology Codes, using data from the U.S. Census Bureau.

Available year: 2010

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