EFAN: Electronic Publications from the Food Assistance & Nutrition Research Program Catalog

      
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EFAN-04014-2, December 30, 2004
Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III), conducted in 1988-94, were used to compare the nutrition and health characteristics of participants and nonparticipants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). This resear...
EFAN-04013, December 03, 2004
This study analyzes the relationship between Food Stamp Program (FSP) caseloads and the macroeconomy using annual State-level panel data for 1980-99. It is the first study to link the time-series properties of the data to an interpretation of public assistance program policy. A longrun relationship ...
EFAN-04014-1, December 01, 2004
Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III), conducted in 1988-94, were used to compare the nutrition and health characteristics of participants and nonparticipants in the Food Stamp Program (FSP). FSP participants were compared with two groups of nonparticipant...
EFAN-04014-3, December 01, 2004
Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III), conducted in 1988-94, were used to compare the nutrition and health characteristics of the Nation's school-age children—boys and girls ages 5-18. Three groups of children were compared based on household income: incom...
EFAN-04014-4, December 01, 2004
Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III), conducted in 1988-94, were used to compare the nutrition and health characteristics of the Nation's older adults—men and women ages 60 years and older. Three groups of older adults were compared based on household inc...
EFAN-3008-3, November 18, 2004
This study investigated the feasibility of linking administrative data from multiple USDA food assistance and nutrition programs. This report contains findings from Phase II of the study, which collected and linked 2000-02 administrative data on clients of the Food Stamp Program (FSP) and the Specia...
EFAN-03008, November 17, 2004
This study investigated the feasibility of linking administrative data from multiple USDA food assistance and nutrition programs. To determine the potential for record linkage, Phase I of the study gathered information in 26 States on the characteristics and content of administrative databases for t...
EFAN-03013-3, November 17, 2004
The Food Stamp Program Access Study was motivated by a desire to learn whether and how the administrative policies and practices of local food stamp offices influence the chances of eligible households participating in the program. This report examines the participation decisions of potentially elig...
EFAN-04012, November 12, 2004
Quality control (QC) reviews of Food Stamp Program (FSP) cases show that error rates across States range from less than 5 percent to more than 25 percent when both overpayment and underpayment error are combined. This study uses QC data for 1997-2001 and a Markov probability framework to characteriz...
EFAN-04011, September 15, 2004
This paper evaluates factors affecting the decision by families that leave the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program to participate in the Food Stamp Program (FSP). Linked Illinois State-level administrative data are combined with Census data and data from the Illinois Families Stud...
EFAN-04010, September 10, 2004
This report provides a compendium of 128 survey questions used in previous research to assess dietary knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors for low-income populations over the age of 18. The short questions or sets of questions on nine topics, including fruits and vegetables; grains, legumes, and fibe...
EFAN-04008, July 13, 2004
This study develops estimates of the efficacy of school nutrition programs in improving a broad range of dietary outcomes by comparing the nutritional status of students and their families during the school year with the status when school is out. The study finds evidence that children who have a Sc...
EFAN-04-009, June 28, 2004
To raise participation in the Food Stamp Program (FSP) by low-income, elderly individuals, USDA implemented the Elderly Nutrition Demonstration in six States (Arizona, Connecticut, Florida, Maine, Michigan, and North Carolina) in 2002. Each of the demonstrations is organized around one of three stra...
EFAN-04007, June 11, 2004
WIC provides supplemental food, nutrition education, and social service referrals to low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women, infants, and children younger than age 5. WIC has come under increased scrutiny as it has expanded rapidly, and some have suggested new directions for the pr...
EFAN-04006-1, June 08, 2004
Compared with children of nonworking mothers, children of full-time working mothers have lower overall HEI (Healthy Eating Index) scores, lower intake of iron and fiber, and higher intake of soda and fried potatoes, even after taking into account differences in maternal and other family characterist...
EFAN-04006-2, June 08, 2004
The higher income of households with working mothers is related to lower participation in USDA’s Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women,Infants,and Children (WIC) and School Breakfast and Food Stamp Programs. In contrast,children of working mothers are more likely to participate in the Nat...
EFAN-04005-2, June 02, 2004
This report is a followup to a proposal to create a national database that links State data from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) with Medicaid and vital records data. The linked information would create new opportunities for Federal and State program...
EFAN-04006, June 02, 2004
A majority of U.S. women with children are now employed outside the home. This ERS-funded study by Abt Associates Inc. used mid-1990s data to explore the effects of mothers’ work on their children’s nutrition. Findings include the following: Children of full-time working mothers have lower overall H...
EFAN-04005, June 01, 2004
Investments in new and improved data resources have the potential to improve the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of research on Federal food assistance and nutrition programs. Data development initiatives in this series of reports address research and program information needs for the Food Stamp P...
EFAN--04005-1, June 01, 2004
This report is a followup to a proposal to link the Current Population Survey (CPS) to State Food Stamp Program (FSP) administrative data. A linked CPS-FSP file would create new opportunities to explore dynamic program participation patterns of FSP participants and eligible nonparticipants. The repo...
EFAN-04005-3, June 01, 2004
This report is a followup to an initiative to establish a central website to collect data from States on the National School Lunch and the School Breakfast Programs. A central website could be used by researchers and program administrators to compare and analyze data across State and local areas for...
EFAN-04004, May 13, 2004
Since the mid-1970s, the prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased dramatically in the United States. The prevalence of overweight has tripled among children and adolescents, and nearly two out of three adult Americans are either overweight or obese. Although high health, social, and econom...
EFAN-03013-2, May 12, 2004
Many food stamp-eligible nonparticipants are aware of the Food Stamp Program (FSP) and how to apply but do not realize that they are eligible. Nearly all eligible nonparticipating households surveyed in 2000 and 2001 knew of the FSP, but less than half thought they were eligible. Most nonparticipant...
EFAN-04003, May 11, 2004
This study examines the experiences of four States (Arizona, Louisiana, Missouri, and Ohio) that use the simplified reporting option of the Food Stamp Program; Arizona also uses the transitional benefit option. With simplified reporting, States lengthen the certification period for most food stamp r...
EFAN-03013, May 05, 2004
The plummeting food stamp caseload of the late 1990s fixed policymakers’ and analysts’ attention on the policies and practices of local food stamp offices as possible barriers to participation. With funding from USDA’s Economic Research Service, Abt Associates Inc. and Health Systems Research, Inc.,...
EFAN-04-002, April 13, 2004
The Federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and the Food Stamp Program (FSP) are the largest means-tested transfer programs for low-income, working parents in the United States. This study examines how these two programs interact, particularly with regard to the impact of the EITC on participation i...
EFAN-04-001, March 18, 2004
This report uses data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the prevalence of and changes in food security between 1997 and 1999 among individual families with children younger than 13. About half of the families that were food insecure in 1997 became food secure by 1999, with the rest ...
EFAN--03013-1, December 09, 2003
A survey of State food stamp offices shows that many policies and practices recommended by USDA in 1999 to improve accessibility to the Food Stamp Program (FSP) were widely operational by the year 2000. For example, in the surveyed areas, food stamp outreach campaigns were fairly widespread, food st...
EFAN-03-012, November 25, 2003
This study examines how employment characteristics of low-income households influence Food Stamp Program (FSP) participation. The relationship between employment and FSP participation is of special interest because, although more low-income working families are eligible to participate, many do not. ...
EFAN-03-011, November 21, 2003
Monthly income and earnings of households that are eligible to participate in the Food Stamp Program (FSP), but that do not participate, vary substantially more than income and earnings of participant households. In particular, many nonparticipant households have had a short-term drop in income. Oth...
EFAN-03-010, November 18, 2003
Policymakers and program administrators have become increasingly concerned about declines in participation in the Food Stamp Program (FSP) and other work supports. As a result, interest has grown in identifying promising strategies for improving low-income families' access to these programs and bene...
EFAN-03009, October 07, 2003
About 61 percent of school districts used direct certification in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) in the 2001-02 school year, the same share as in 1996. Direct certification increased the number of children certified for free meals by about 400,000 and slightly increased overall NSLP partic...
EFAN-03007, August 06, 2003
During a typical month in 2001, food pantries served about 12.5 million people, and emergency kitchens served about 1.1 million people. Food pantries and emergency kitchens play an important role in feeding America's low-income and needy populations. These organizations are part of the Emergency Foo...
EFAN-03008-1, June 23, 2003
Administrative data from USDA's food assistance and nutrition programs (FANPs) provide statistics on the number and characteristics of program participants. However, policymakers and researchers often want more information than these administrative data provide about participation in multiple progra...
EFAN-03008-2, June 23, 2003
Administrative data from USDA's food assistance and nutrition programs (FANPs) provide statistics on the number and characteristics of program participants. However, policymakers and researchers often want more information than these administrative data provide about participation in multiple progra...
EFAN-03-006, April 28, 2003
Almost all schools participating in USDA's Fruit and Vegetable Pilot Program (FVPP) consider the program to be very successful and would like the pilot to continue. The Nutrition Title of the 2002 Farm Act provided $6 million to the FVPP for the 2002-03 school year to improve fruit and vegetable con...
EFAN-03001, March 26, 2003
The U.S. Department of Agriculture, through the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP), funds meals for children in low-income areas when school is not in session. The first comprehensive study of the SFSP since 1986 found that, in fiscal year 2001, more than 4,000 local sponsors provided about 130 mill...
EFAN-03-002, March 06, 2003
This report presents the findings of a study of able-bodied adults without dependents (ABAWDs) in South Carolina who left the Food Stamp Program (FSP) between October 1998 and March 2000. Under 1996 welfare reform legislation, ABAWDs are limited to 3 months of food stamp benefits in a 36-month perio...
EFAN-03-003, March 06, 2003
This report presents the results of a study of about 900 nonwelfare families who left the Food Stamp Program (FSP) in South Carolina between October 1998 and March 2000. Nonwelfare families were defined as families who did not receive any benefits under the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TA...
EFAN-03005, February 25, 2003
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides both nutrition education and supplemental foods for pregnant, breastfeeding, and post-partum women, infants, and children. These supplemental foods contain nutrients that nutritional research has found may oth...
EFAN-01008, October 01, 2002
Findings of the first comprehensive government study of the Emergency Food Assistance System (EFAS) suggest that public and private food assistance may work in tandem to provide more comprehensive food assistance than either provides by itself. Five major types of organizations (emergency kitchens, ...
EFAN-02016, September 20, 2002
Twenty percent of U.S. households classified as food insecure had midrange or high incomes, according to responses to the 1995-97 Current Population Survey. This study investigates the extent to which these households were food insecure and what proportion of them may have been incorrectly identifie...
EFAN-02015, August 22, 2002
This report describes and assesses a 30-day household food security scale that can be applied specifically to Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement (CPS-FSS) data. In the analysis described here, a 30-day scale was originally developed for use in the analysis of the 1995 CPS data. This ...
EFAN-01-009, July 01, 2002
All States in a recent study undertook at least one "re-engineering" activity in their Food Stamp Programs (FSPs) as a result of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). In addition, 35 States implemented changes in 3 or more re-engineering categories, wh...
EFAN-02-013, July 01, 2002
This report provides a toolkit of standardized measurement tools for assessing various aspects of community food security. It includes a general guide to community assessment and focused materials for examining six basic assessment components related to community food security. These include guides ...
EFAN-02014-1, July 01, 2002
Enrollment in Iowa's Food Stamp Program (FSP) sharply decreased in the last years of the 1990s, following significant changes in social assistance programs in the State, passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, and a period of good economic conditions. ...
EFAN-02014-2, July 01, 2002
The Iowa Food Stamp Leavers survey was conducted to evaluate the status of people who had left the Iowa Food Stamp Program in 1997. This report describes the sample design, location strategies, data collection methodologies, and weighting procedures used in conducting the survey and preparing the da...
EFAN-02007, June 27, 2002
Most State agencies are now using electronic benefits transfer (EBT) systems to issue food stamp benefits. To promote operational efficiency, some States have received waivers of certain rules governing EBT use. An exploratory study was conducted to ascertain the effects of these waivers on food sta...
EFAN-02010, June 19, 2002
This report complements prior reports on measuring household food security in the United States. It explores key technical issues related to Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement data, focusing especially on the August 1998 and April 1999 surveys. These technical issues include the esti...
EFAN-02-012, June 12, 2002
This report explores factors that influence Food Stamp Program (FSP) participation among the elderly and identifies ways to improve their participation based on findings from focus groups of senior FSP participants and nonparticipants, community-based organizations, and staff from local food stamp o...
EFAN-02011, June 03, 2002
This report provides estimates of the prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in U.S. households in 1998 and 1999 and trends since 1995 based on nationally representative data in the Food Security Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). The report also provides estimates of the prevalenc...
EFAN-02-003, April 01, 2002
Sponsors of family child care homes in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) took on additional responsibilities as a result of the tiered reimbursement structure introduced in 1997. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 mandated a tiered reimbursement s...
EFAN-02-004, April 01, 2002
Family child care providers who participate in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) receive reimbursement for qualifying meals served to children in their care. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 mandated a two-tiered reimbursement structure designed...
EFAN-02-005, April 01, 2002
Within the family child care home portion of the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), low-income children increased from 21 to 39 percent of all participating children between 1995 and 1999. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act of 1996 mandated a tiered reimbur...
EFAN-02-006, April 01, 2002
The introduction of tiered reimbursement rates in 1997 did not substantially affect the food and nutrient composition of meals offered by Tier 2 providers in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 mandated a...
EFAN-02-009, March 14, 2002
This report examines the level of plate waste in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and information on strategies to reduce it. Strategies examined include using the offer vs. serve provision for meal service, rescheduling lunch hours, improving the quality of food, tailoring serving sizes to ...
EFAN-02002, March 13, 2002
The introduction of tiered reimbursement rates in 1997 reduced the number of family child care homes participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) in 1998 and 1999. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 mandated a tiered reimbursement structure ...
EFAN-02008, March 01, 2002
This report provides the results of a study on the effects of changes in the economy and recent policy changes on trends in food stamp caseloads during 1987-99 and seeks to account for the sharp decline in caseloads after 1994. The study analyzed food stamp receipt among different types of household...
EFAN-01-010, December 01, 2001
This report describes 10 potential data development initiatives, each of which holds promise for improving the quality or reducing the cost of data resources in USDA's three major food assistance programs. The initiatives reflect the research needs of all three of the largest Federal food assistance...
EFAN-01-011, December 01, 2001
This report identifies and assesses methods used to detect and prevent fraud and abuse among staff and participants of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). The report summarizes the relevant WIC regulations; describes basic controls or practices widely u...
EFAN-01-012, December 01, 2001
This report identifies and assesses methods used to detect and prevent fraud and abuse among staff and participants of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). The report summarizes the relevant WIC regulations; describes basic controls or practices widely u...
EFAN-01-013, December 01, 2001
This report describes a study design permitting a scientifically defensible evaluation of the impact of the School Breakfast Program (SBP) on learning and cognitive development among children. Following presentation of a literature review and conceptual framework of the SBP-learning relationship, fo...
EFAN-02-001, October 01, 2001
This final report responds to Congress's request for a study on the number of suppliers of infant formula in each State or major marketing area and comparison of the costs of formula that is included in USDA's WIC program versus that of other formula.
EFAN-01-007, August 20, 2001
The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 more than doubled funding to States for USDA's Food Stamp Employment and Training Program. The law required States to spend at least 80 percent of the funding on services that can fulfill the work requirements imposed by welfare reform legislation in 1996 on able-bodi...
EFAN-01-006, April 26, 2001
This interim report responds to Congress's request for a study on the number of suppliers of infant formula in each State or major marketing area and comparison of the costs of formula that is included in the USDA's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) versus...
EFAN-01-005, February 01, 2001
The William F. Goodling Child Nutrition Act of 1998 directed ERS to conduct a study to assess the impacts of WIC (USDA's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) cost-containment practices. This Interim Report presents results from the first year of the study, includi...
EFAN-01-002, January 01, 2001
This study examined the situation of food stamp recipients in Illinois who left the Food Stamp Program in 1997. About half of all leavers were employed in any given month after exiting the program, and many worked in low-wage jobs. Nearly half of all leavers returned to the program, and more than ha...
EFAN-01-003, January 01, 2001
This report summarizes the results of a longitudinal microsimulation model known as MATH STEWARD that was used to explore how state welfare reform and economic changes between 1992 and 1998 might have affected the Food Stamp Program and how an economic recession might affect food stamp outcomes. Sli...
EFAN-01-001, December 01, 2000
This study examined the situation of adults in Arizona who left the Food Stamp Program in 1997. Adults with dependents or a disability who did not receive Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) at any time during the 12 months preceding their food stamp exit showed the highest degree of self...
EFAN-01-004, October 01, 2000
The executive summary and three accompanying volumes of this report describe the design of a national study of USDA's Summer Food Service Program (SFSP). The SFSP was created in 1975 to provide children from low-income families with nutritious meals when school is not in session. On a typical summer...

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