Full-Time LL.M. in Natural Resources Law and Policy
This degree is aimed at resources industry professionals, both in government and industry, who wish to develop a broad understanding of the legal and regulatory framework within which the resources industry operates, both nationally and internationally, and of the key policy issues and challenges.
|The LL.M. is made up of 200 credits as follows:|
|Natural Resources Sectors: A Multidisciplinary Introduction||
|Dissertation, Internship or extended PhD Proposal||
Note: The Diploma and Certificate are available as exit qualifications.
To find out everything you need to know about the programme, please click on the headings above. Additional useful information about the LL.M. can be found using the links in the table below:
Natural Resources Sectors: A Multidisciplinary Introduction (20 credits)
The aim of the module is to provide foundational understanding of key disciplines supporting an analysis of the energy and natural resources sectors. The programme delivers essential introductory studies in law, economics, geology and finance enabling students to effectively engage with a multidisciplinary framework of studies underpinning all taught postgraduate degrees within the Graduate School of Natural Resources, Law, Policy and Management.
Candidates should choose a minimum of 80 credits from the list below:
Environmental Law and Policy for Natural Resources and Energy (20 credits)
The course deals with selected issues central to understanding international and national environmental policy and law related to production and consumption of natural resources and power generation. It addresses, in particular, environmental problems arising in connection with production and transportation of petroleum (both on-land and offshore), mining activities, use of nuclear energy, including production of uranium and disposal of radioactive wastes, and use of fossil fuels, including transboundary air pollution and global climate effects. A special emphasis is placed on the solutions for environmental problems provided by various national regulatory systems, in particular British and North American.
International and Comparative Mineral Law (20 credits)
This module aims at introducing participants to main principles and concepts of legal, regulatory and contractual regimes for mining, from international and comparative perspectives and within a sustainable development framework. The focus is on the understanding of ownership and mineral tenure regimes; the interface between mineral tenure regimes, competitive uses of land and environmental regulation; forms and typical clauses of mining agreements; CSR, scope and implications of voluntary regulation; an introduction to underlying conflicts for the regulation of artisanal and small-scale mining; and methods for, and trends on, community engagement in mining projects.
International Law of Natural Resources and Energy (20 credits)
The main objective of the course is to provide an introduction to the fundamental concepts and specific legal and jurisdictional issues in the field of international and transboundary natural resources. The emphasis is on ensuring a proper understanding of the existing legal mechanisms and international regimes applicable to various types of natural resources located beyond States’ jurisdiction or control.
International Law of Water Resources (20 credits)
The primary objective of this course is to provide an overview of the law that governs the non-navigational uses of international watercourses. The course begins with an overview of the fundamental principles of public international law, considered in the specific context of international watercourses. At the end of the modules, students are expected to be able to identify the legal issues and possible solutions for addressing international water problems. An understanding of the basic principles of public international law is required. The programme will consist of seven 3-hour lectures, with some provision for student presentations. The assessment for the course is one research paper, maximum length 4500 words due at the end of the term.
International Petroleum Law and Policy (20 credits)
The main objective of the module is to provide an understanding of the main law and policy issues in the international petroleum industry, with an emphasis upon transactional agreements concluded between host government and oil company/investors.
Common and diverging objectives between the two parties and indeed among the international corporate and financial investors themselves are faced in a candid and practical way, with an emphasis upon ways of accommodating the interests of diverse stakeholders in the development of petroleum resources.
A brief introduction is provided to petroleum taxation issues. The module focuses upon problem-solving techniques in a variety of settings, noting the inputs of lawyers, economists, accountants, engineers and geologists.
International Trade Law (20 credits)
The main objective of this course is to provide students with an understanding of the overall regulatory framework within which international business transactions take place. This includes an understanding of international treaties regulating cross-border trade relations and the operation of pertinent international organisations administering those treaties, particularly the WTO. The course approaches most issues from a natural resources perspective.
Mineral Resources Policy and Economics (20 credits)
All too often mineral policies are developed without any proper understanding of the economic forces which influence all aspects of the mineral industries. Unless they work with those forces, rather than against them, policies are doomed to fail, no matter how well-intentioned or desirable they might appear. Whilst the various sectors of the hard-rock mineral industries share common features, each is influenced by different factors. This course explains, in a straightforward and common sense fashion, the main characteristics of the major sectors and the many forces working on demand, supply and prices. It is often overlooked that mining is primarily an economic activity. The lectures and notes bring out the various conflicting aims and objectives of all concerned with the industries and give an overall view of the economic context for all the legal and policy issues facing the minerals industry without becoming unduly enmeshed in whatever is presently of fashionable concern.
National and Comparative Oil and Gas Law (20 credits)
The module aims to provide an understanding of the regulatory and contractual mechanisms required to make a single jurisdiction work in relation to petroleum law. The emphasis is on providing the student with knowledge and understanding of the differences (and similarities) between regimes based on licences, and those based on production sharing contracts.
All oil and gas law throughout the world is the same at a basic level – international law determines which state is entitled to the resource; the entitled state grants rights to individuals to extract the resource; the individuals agree amongst themselves as to how to split the costs and benefits; there is unitisation if necessary; the production is taxed; pipelines etc are built to move the production; the production is sold; and the facilities are ultimately decommissioned. This module aims to show the different models states adopt to facilitate petroleum production, including showing the role for state companies.
National Water Law and Regulation (20 credits)
The primary objective of this course is to provide an overview of the fundamental legal principles that govern national freshwaters from a comparative law perspective. The course begins with an overview of legal entitlement to water and compares national legal regulatory systems. At the end of the module, students are expected to be able to identify the legal issues and possible solutions for addressing national water problems. An understanding of the basic principles of national law is required. This course will consider the principles of national water law and administration. Basic historical and current concepts of national water law will be identified and analysed. Existing systems of water law in various countries (i.e., civil law countries, common law countries, Muslim countries) will be examined and compared. The course will address the issues of ownership and legal entitlement with respect to water resources; legal regimes governing the right to use water; regulation of the beneficial uses of water resources and water quality and pollution control. Finally, such issues as water resources administration and privatisation of the water industry will be examined. The new developments in Scotland will be analysed and compared with water law revision activities in other countries (i.e. Australia, China, Kenya, Namibia and South Africa).
Transnational Investment Law and Policy (20 credits)
The main objectives of this course are to provide a survey of international investment law and policies, and to set the various approaches to regulating foreign investment in a social, economic and political context. In addition the course will provide students with an understanding of current and emerging developments in investment laws and policies.
Candidates are advised to choose additional modules from what is available on the academic timetable subject to any restrictions that may apply.
Together with the core modules above, excluding the Induction Programme they should add up to 140 credits for the LL.M..
Apart from the Induction Programme, there are no core modules. Students should take sufficient modules from the academic timetable subject to any restrictions that may apply.
Compulsory Core Choice Modules - choice of 40 credits from:
Dissertation (40 credits)
The dissertation contributes to the achievement of the aims of the Masters degree namely:- to promote a deeper and critical understanding of selected areas relating to the specialisation of the student; to develop originality of thought and skills of research, analysis, argumentation and expression; to build upon, develop and integrate the knowledge and skills acquired in the taught modules.
A dissertation of up to 15,000 words on a topic approved by an academic supervisor
Extended PhD Proposal (40 credits)
The Extended PhD proposal contributes to the achievement of the aims of the Masters degree namely:- to promote a deeper and critical understanding of selected areas relating to the specialisation of the student; to develop originality of thought and skills of research, analysis, argumentation and expression; to build upon, develop and integrate the knowledge and skills acquired in the taught modules. In addition, the PhD proposal should provide the basis for significantly more specialised and detailed research to be undertaken as part of the PhD programme.
Students who propose to follow up their degree with a PhD may, with the approval of an academic supervisor, submit a 10,000 word PhD proposal.
Internship (40 credits)
The internship provides the student with the opportunity to apply in the workplace the knowledge and skills learnt at CEPMLP and to learn how professionals in the field perform their tasks.
Students who choose this option are required to source an organisation willing to offer a 3-month work placement, approved by an academic supervisor. The Internship includes the submission of a written report as part of the assessment.